Schema, structured data, rich result, and rich snippet are all important words you may have questions about on your quest to optimize your SEO. If you're signed up to Google's Search Console you have no doubt received notices about errors, warnings, or notices related to your site's compliance with Schema.org.
What are Schema.org and Rich Results?
Schema.org is a method for structuring your data in a way that's easy for a search engine to understand. You may have products, reviews, breadcrumbs, images, and other data which help a search engine interpret the importance of your page.
Structuring your data with Schema.org also allows you to partake in Google's rich results. You may have seen how some of your own searches yield carousels, ratings, and links, right on the search results page. These are all rich results.
Utilizing Schema.org can have a positive impact on your SEO so it's worth reading up on and adding to your skillset.
Your Shopify theme likely has some basic schema.org implementation built in. But as it matures, certain elements become deprecated or get updates that require you to reorganize how you lay out your HTML.
There are countless places to read up on this. The best of these is Google's own Search Gallery. The page is filled with the most common examples of how to utilize Schema.org as well as test your pages to be compliant.
Another resource is this article from 2019 which goes into specific details on how to implement some basic Schema.org methods for your home, product, collection, blog, and article pages.